A History of Trucks:





First semi-truck built by Alexander Wasson












Sold his first manufactured vehicle

Winton Motor Carriage started production












 Founded in Brooklyn, NY

Incorporated the Fruehauf Trailer Company

Designed so that it would be easy for a single operator to hook the trailer to the car



1940's trailer & truck






A car salesman required to deliver the cars that he sold, he was reliant on car haulers

1929 – 1944






Mack produced 2,601 semi or full trailers

In 1930, attempted to ship the new cars directly to the buyers and realized that the shipment costs were prohibitive for the car manufacturers

In 1939, Peterbilt trucks were used extensively to haul logs from the forests to the lumber mills






The first cab-over was introduced and the trucking industry really began to take off


1970's trailer & truck






Freightliner imported the Powerline model









The typical long nose trucks are back in style









Freightliner introduces sleeper in the cab










Cab-over returns to meet length restrictions









Peterbilt Model 385 is introduced


History of trailers:


1914 trailer





Utility distinguished itself as one of America’s

two original manufacturers of truck trailers.


1920's trailer







The roaring ’20’s are ushered in while a Federal Highway Act

coordinates state highways and standardizes U.S. road-building

practices for the trucking industry.


1930's truck & trailer






America’s highway system continues to expand

dramatically with the opening of Route 66.


1940's trailer & truck






A new Federal Highway Act establishes an arterial road network of 40,000 miles to reach 42 state capitols and serve 182 cities


1950's truck & trailer

Saw the rise of the automobile in conjunction with one of America’s major population shifts from the city to the suburb


1960's truck & trailer






The influx of smaller, more efficient vehicles and large passenger vehicles and trucks may see a resurgence only with development of new technology to more efficiently power them


1980's trailer & truck






Created uniformity among state laws that opened up the country to double-trailers and coast-to-coast carriers


1999 trailer & truck







Mike Mueller described an upsurge of personal truck sales that had occurred over the previous several years


2008 trailer & truck






The deep cuts at GM seem to be closing a chapter in the domestic auto industry.


2010 truck & trailer







GM has recently announced it will discontinue the popular Hummer model and will discontinue all production at four North American truck and SUV assembly plants

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In 1903 the Wright brothers’ first airplane was high ark like one of the planes today.  Their first airplane was a two-seater and was small airplane that flew back and forth. While this event was happening in the United States, war was brewing. The airplane had carted man from ground to air travel both in America and around the world. Air travel was the tool that began World War I Yet it wasn’t until the Second World War that commercial aviation had became usable for the mass population.  Airports had begun to spring up all over, the first commercial flight in history had even occurred in the United States

wright brothers plane

On January 1, 1914 the plane was the Benoist XIV the Wright brothers’ first airplane piloted by Tony Janus and was still just a two-seater.  Just 3 years later the United States entered the First World War. After the event prices came down. The United States had created manufacturing Plants that were capable of making commercial aircraft affordable enough to allow for air travel for everyone. This was a big change from the beginning of the aviation era. While in world war two, airplanes of all types: fighters, bombers, and transports developed rapidly. Biplanes saw action in the early years of the war. Jet aircraft zoomed through the skies over Germany.


1945 InThe Americans produced the most of the superior warplanes. Their interests moved forward to bigger better things, which made the golden age better. While the army profiled some of their civil airplanes.   The many companies like the Republic of north American Grumman, Boeing, Lock Herd, also Bell created 100,000 fighter planes also tens of thousands of heavy duty bombers.



In 1939-1945 there were a lot of innovations in the world and there was a lot of bad weather at the time period so in response the radio wave and new Navigation Techniques such as airborne radar was invented. In Britain the Instrument landing system (ILS) for landing in bad weather is put into use in 1944.

landing strip

In 1947 the U.S. there was an air force pilot named Chuck Yeager who became the fastest man alive when he piloted the Bell X-1 faster. It was capable of moving faster than any sound. He broke the sound barrier on October 14th over the big town of Victorville’ California

yeager jet

In 1949 there was a prototype that was named de Havilland comet makes its first appearance it was the first jet powered Commercial aircraft.


In the 1950’s B-52 bomber makes the B-52 bomber. It has eight turbo jet engines, intercontinental   range, and capacity of 500,000 pounds.


In 1952 Richard Whitcomb an engineer at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical laboratory discovers and verifies an aircraft design concept known as the “area rule”.  A revolutionary method of designing aircraft to reduce drag and increase speed without additional power and he later invents winglets, which increase to fit drag ratio of transport airplanes and other vehicles.


In 1963 the prototype Learjet 23 makes its first flight on October 7th the first small jet airplane enter mass production with more than 100 sold by the end of 1965.


In 1969 the Boeing 747 the Boeing conducts the first flight of a wide body, turbofan powered commercial airline, the 747, and one of the most successful aircraft ever produced.

big plane

In 1976 the Concorde SST Introduced into commercial airlines service to Britain and France on January 21st it is the fastest commercial airline. It was able to make a trip from New York to London in 3.5 hours.

semi-big plane

In 1986 the Voyager plane was the first airplane to fly around the world on only one tank of fuel.


 In 1990 the B-52 had two non-metal wings and was unable to be detected by any regular radar device. 


In 1995 the 777 was the very first aircraft built with the help of computers and was the largest two engine plane ever built.


In 1998 NASA and Russia team up to design a flying laboratory plane for making observations the Tu-144LL. Of all the various different planets like mars and Jupiter and Venus and other astral bodies.


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We seem to get so comfortable in the way we live our lives. We shop at the same grocery store every week, buy the same food, wear our hair in the same style, and take the same route to work day after day. And having a routine is fine, most of the time. But if you never go a different direction or vary from that routine you may be missing out on something unexpected, maybe even a little strange. And strange doesn’t have to be little green men, it is simply something unexpected or something you haven’t experienced before. If you have never been to an art studio, put that on your to do list. If you have heard great things about a new restaurant whose cuisine you’ve never tried, make a reservation. Step outside your comfort zone; be a little adventurous, maybe even a bit bold. It may sound trite, but, stop and smell the roses. Or at least stop and look around. The world is a fascinating place full of amazing sights, sounds, and even tastes. So keep your eyes wide open and you will never run out of extraordinary things to see and do.

Do you love the tasty recipes, great tips, photo spreads, and events that Circles Magazine has in every issue? Want more Circles?

Check us out online at www.circlesmagazine.org where you can listen to audio versions of our articles, see additional content, and learn about our team members. There is no login required to view everything you love about Circles…… and more!






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Watching a battle between good and evil, has proven to be widely popular in film and television. In some cases the villain can become notable and have a large following of fans. Here is a countdown of Circles’ top twenty villains.

20. Catwoman (Batman Franchise)


19. Dr. Evil (Austin Powers)


18. Cruella Deville (101 Dalmatians)


17. Shredder (Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles)


16. Norman Bates (Bates Motel and Psycho)



15. Scar (Lion King)


14. Dr. Doom (Fantastic Four)


13. The Governor (The Walking Dead)


12. Magneto (X-Men)


11. Loki (Avengers and Thor)


10. Maleficent (Maleficent and Sleeping Beauty)


9. President Snow (Hunger Games)


8. Sauron (Lord of the Rings)


7. Bane (Batman Franchise)


6. Lex Luther (Superman)


5.  Wicked Witch of the West (Wizard of Oz)


4. Megatron (Transformers)


3.  Joker (Batman Franchise)


2. Lord Voldemort (Harry Potter)


1. Darth Vader (Star Wars)


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Le Corbeau

During the course of history, many people have been fascinated, intrigued, and inspired by authors who craft dark, mysterious stories into best-selling works.  These include books, made- for- television movies, and even film.  Coming up with some of the most prolific writers of horror, oddity, and awe was no easy feat; but we at Circles Magazine rose to the challenge and found what we believe may be the top 6.


Perhaps one of the most famous and eternally memorialized authors is Edgar Allan Poe. Born in January of 1809, Poe is known for his dark tales of satire, gothic works, short stories and poems, such as ‘’ The Raven’’.  Poe was also one of the innovators of the American horror story and is often referred to and credited for being the father of modern detective stories. Poe’s frequent use of subjects such as death and loss played a repetitive theme throughout many of his most famous works.


Poe married Virginia Clem, his 13 year old cousin, in 1836. She served as both his literary inspiration and love interest.   When she tragically passed in 1847, Poe allegedly spun into depression and indulged in alcohol.  He untimely passed away at the age of 40 in 1849.  Poe is still, to this day, capturing the imagination and interests of readers around the world.



Bram Stoker was born November 8, 1847. He was an Irish novelist/ short story writer and was best known for the 1897 gothic novel ‘’ Dracula’’.  The 3rd of 7 children, he was bedridden with an unknown illness.  He was miraculously cured and then started school at 7 years old.

Stoker later stated that the long illness served as inspiration and gave him insight and opportunity to develop creativity and thoughts in later years for his future works. He was said to be partly inspired for the great novel ‘’ Dracula’’ upon a visit to Whitby, England in 1890.   He was also fascinated by a Hungarian writer who shared dark stories of the Carpathian Mountains. Stoker spent several years researching European folklore and mythological stories of vampires. The novel gave form to a universal fantasy and became an intricate part of pop culture.

‘’ Dracula’’ is a timeless, romanticized gothic story which served as the basis for several vampire-based movies and television shows and is still; to this day, considered one of the earliest works of horror/ fiction created.



Anne Rice was born in New Orleans, Louisiana on October 4 1941.  She has sold over 100 million copies of her novels. The majority of Anne’s childhood and teenage years were spent coping with poverty and dealing with her mother’s alcoholism.  She later attended college and majored in journalism in San Francisco and later married her high school sweetheart Stan Rice. After her daughter Michelle died of leukemia at the age of 5 in 1972, Anne penned her novel ‘’ Interview With A Vampire’’ to cope with the grief of losing her daughter. Rice currently resides outside of New Orleans following the death of her husband. Other novels Rice penned are ‘’ Queen of the Damned’’ and ‘’ Exit to Eden’’ both also became on-screen hits.



Robert Lawrence (R.L) Stein was born October 8, 1943 and is an American writer and producer. Often referred to as the “Stephen King” of children’s literature, he is author to 100’s of horror/fiction novels, which include “Goosebumps”, “Fear Street”, and “Mostly Ghostly”.  His books have sold over 400 million copies as of 2008.

Stein started his career as a humor writer for “Bananas”, a children’s humor magazine under the pen name Jovial Bob Stein.  He was also co-creator and head writer for the Nickelodeon networks television show “Eureka’s Castle”.


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How to Make a Toga out of a Bed sheet


A toga is essential wear for anyone regularly attending college fraternity or sorority parties in the US. It doesn’t only have to be for College students to wear it can be fun for anyone when an occasion like Halloween or a costume party comes up and you do not have a costume to wear. Although a bed sheet is not something you would think of for a costume it does come in handy for making a fashionable toga. So next time you say that you do not have a costume, stop and think I do have a bed sheet and I can make something with that. So never be caught off guard again and be resourceful with what you have on hand.



Here are three different styles of togas with step by step pictures and directions:

Method 1of 3:


Toga Step 1


Take the corner of a top sheet in one hand.

Leave about 6-8″ (15 – 20 cm) to spare.

Hold in front of the top of one of your shoulders.


TogaStep 3

Drape the sheet snugly across your chest.

Tuck it under the opposite (right) arm.

Toga Step 2




Shorten if necessary.

If the toga is too long for you, fold one edge over by six inches (15 cm) or so, and try again.

Keep adjusting until you get the right length, which is at the knee.


Toga Step 4

Wrap the toga around your back.

Tuck it under the left arm and once more around the front of your chest.




Bring up the second corner.

After bringing it across your chest, under your right arm the second time and around your back, bring the second corner up over your back.

Secure the two ends with a brooch, pin, or simple knot.



Secure the layers tightly. Use a couple of hidden safety pins inside the toga.

Try to make sure they aren’t in an uncomfortable position.




Head to the party to show off that nice toga!


Method 2 of 3: (uses pins)



Hold the corner of the sheet hip level at your left side.

It should be covering the front of your body, and not the back.



Wrap the fabric around your back to form a skirt.

Wrap until it overlaps the first corner by a few inches.



Pin it in place. It should fit securely, forming a waist band.



Throw the remainder of the sheet over your right shoulder.

Method 3 of 3: (uses pins)



Decide the length of your toga. It is recommended to use a twin sheet, though a full sheet can work (especially if you are taller). Fold the sheet lengthwise until it is the desired length of the final dress. For a short toga, fold the sheet in half. For a longer toga, fold down only the top 6 to 12 inches.


Fold the sheet in half again. This should be done such that one half covers the back of your body and the other half covers the front. The folded down section should be at the top and outside of the rest of the material.


Pin the shoulders. Use a single pin for each shoulder or a number of pins. Pin the front section of sheet to the back section of sheet where your clavicle meets with your shoulder. You can buy fancy pins for the occasion or you can use 2” or similar round button (like political buttons).



Place your arm through the hole. A hole should have been formed by the pinning on the side where the front of the sheet meets the back. Place your arm through this hole.


Tie the waist. Use string, a ribbon, or a tight fitting belt to tie the waist. You will probably need to overlap the open sides a bit before you secure the waist, to ensure that your skin is not exposed.


Enjoy your toga! Have fun telling people that this is a historically accurate Greek dress…if you’re into that kind of thing.


If you are going out in public, be sure to pin it. You don’t want it falling

  • off!
  • Use a white twin sheet if possible. This gives the cleanest and most toga-like effect.
  • If you are left handed, you might want to wrap the edge of the bed sheet on your right shoulder because it might look better for you.
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(A shopping guide for strange and unusual stores in Las Vegas)

Whether you are a local with a taste for the outrageous, or a tourist taking in the sights of the city for the first time; Las Vegas is not only the entertainment capital of the world- but has also been known to house some of the strangest andmost unusual stores in the country.

If you are a comic book enthusiast, then Alternative Reality Comics is the store for you. It is located at 4110 S. Maryland Parkway. They have an extensive and diverse selection of alternative and superhero comics, graphic novels, and many pop culture items. The owners are die-hard comic book fanatics and are passionate about their hobby. They are also very knowledgeable and entertain questions about the products that they sell.  (702-736-3673).

Channeling your inner show-diva is easy when you head to Rainbow Feather Company located at 1036 S. Main St. They sell feathers in various shapes, sizes or colors, and canalso make jewelry, flowers and fans out of feathers!  (702-598-0988).

You can then complete your own show-diva outfit with a trip to Serge’s Showgirl Wigs located at 4515 W. Sahara.  Not only do they house one of the longest wig showcases in the United States, they also have 20-plus years in business.  Stylists are also on duty full-time, to ensure you find an alter-ego worthy of the Vegas nightlife and stage! (702-732-1018).

For the gambling enthusiast, you will always have a winning hand shopping at The Gamblers General Store located at 800 S. Main St.  This store prides itself in the making of custom designs and the manufacturing of items such as poker chips, dice, professional cases, furniture and trays.  They also sell books, roulette wheels, bingo supplies and novelty items. Just look for the two giant slot machines out front and remember, the house ALWAYS wins! (702-382-9903).

If the great outdoors is your ideal setting, then check out Bass Pro Shops Outdoor World,  3333 Blue Diamond Rd. Located in The Silverton Casino, this 165,000 square- foot building houses and archery range, a rock-climbing wall, plus two the pistol ranges. It even houses a huge aquarium filled with fish to bone-up on your casting skills and catch the ‘’ big one’’.  (702-730-5200).

If preparing for a zombie invasion, then The Zombie Apocalypse Store is your destination for all things undead. Located at 3420 Spring Mountain Rd, The Zombie Apocalypse Store houses everything frommilitary food rations, weapons, t-shirts and even novelty items.  The store is a perfect shopping location for anypending zombie outbreak. There is also a paintball/shooting range to sharpen your skills to decimate the undead! (702-320-0703).

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We live in a society that brings together aspects of many different countries and cultures; Europe, Asia, Africa… to name a few.  Almost everywhere you look there are reminders of faraway places and times long past; you may even see glimpses of civilizations that have all but disappeared. From art to various ancient inventions, there are many things that keep us connected to our ancestry. The styles of our clothing, the décor in our homes, the food we eat, and even how we eat it are reflections of our lineage as well.

As descendants of many different civilizations, our customs and traditions keep the heritage alive. We are a living legacy to those who came before us. Their stories have been recorded and passed down over time with each generation adding chapters.

Who are your ancestors? Where are they from?  What will our chapter say?

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©Copyright 2012 by Circles magazine, all rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reprinted or otherwise reproduced without written permission from Circles. Printed in the United States by the Dot Printer, Las Vegas. Every effort was made to ensure the accuracy of information in this publication, however, Circles assumes no responsibility for error, changes or omissions.




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scrapbook photo2


Typically we have received only positive comments from our readers and they are greatly appreciated. But recently we received an anonymous letter regarding an article in our “Entertainment” issue which featured Rachael Ray, Bobby Flay, and Paula Deen. The article was simply a look at how cooking shows, and their stars, have become a large part of the entertainment industry. We were criticized for selecting Deen due to the controversy that surrounded her in the past year. Circles feels that the writer of the letter may have not reacted so strongly if they had some insight into who we are and how we choose our content.

Circles Magazine is a lifestyle magazine. We are just one of several businesses ran by Transition Services Inc., a non-profit organization that provides meaningful work to adults with developmental disabilities. The magazine is intended to allow the individuals we support to do something they are not usually asked to do; share with others, their unique view of the world around them. All themes and content are arrived at through brainstorming sessions lead by staff and are voted on by all team members.

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