From the primitive grinding stones to the modern food processor, kitchen utensils have been a part of everyday life from what seems like the beginning of ti me. Circles Magazine explored how they have progressed throughout the decades.



from the original Dover egg beater to the 1940’s  electric to the modern kitchen mixer

In 1860 the hand slicer was more difficult without the circular blade of today.




Utensils come from the stone age of ti me three million years ago. Around 360 B.C., the bronze age of utensils were introduced, leading us to more sophisticated forms of metallurgy. Then in the 8th century the Romans popularized utensils such as meat hooks, meat mincers, spatulas, colanders, strainers and ladles made of iron, with pots and
kettles made of bronzes and terracottta. Early modern times begun producing specialized utensils like the apple corer, cork screws, and canned food openers. In the 19th century we expanded the market of utensils such as: potato peelers, jelly molds and salad spinners. They proved to be very popular because of the time saved on the labor. By the end of the 20th century kitchen utensils were commonly made of metals including steel, nickel, silver, tin and aluminum. Leading us into the la er 20th century with the majority of kitchen utensils being manufactured from petroleum based plastics.








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1 cup of flour

1 teaspoon of baking powder

1 tablespoon of butter melted

1 half cup of milk

1 gingerbread man baking pantoaster-oven-with-biscuit


  1. Preheat toaster oven to 425 degrees
  2. Mix together flour and baking powde
  3. work in melted butter
  4. Add milk and mix into a soft doughfinished-biscuit
  5. pour entire mixture into gingerbread man baking pan and smooth evenly
  6. Bake 15 to 18 minutes or until golden brown
  7. pay careful attention to the doneness because toaster ovens are not reliable in their temperature as a conventional oven
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In 1966, professor and chairman of Black Studies at California State University, Long Beach, Dr. Maulana Karenga, created Kwanzaa. He searched for ways to bring African-Americans together as a community, After the Watts riots in Los Angeles. He founded US, a cultural organization, and started to research African-Americans “first fruit” (harvest) celebrations. Karenga combined aspects of several different harvest celebrations, such as those of the Ashanti and those of the Zulu, to form the basis of Kwanzaa.
Kwanzaa comes from the phrase “matunda ya kwanza” which in Swahili means “first fruits”. Families celebrates Kwanzaa in its own way, but celebrations often include songs and dances, African drums, storytelling, poetry reading, and a large traditional meal. On each of the seven nights, A child from the family lights one of the candles on the candleholder (known as Kinara), then the family will discuss one of the seven principles and what they mean. The seven principles are values of African culture which contribute to building and reinforcing community among African-Americans. There are also has seven basic symbols in Kwanzaa which represent values and concepts reflective of African culture. Karamu is an African feast held on December 31.
Omiyale Jubé, came from Harlem 40 years ago she grew up celebrating Kwanzaa and she wanted to bring the African culture to Las Vegas .She explained it to the Circles Magazine crew to make simpler to understand :
The colors of Kwanzaa are red, black and green and each of these colors represent specific parts of the Kwanzaa celebration. Kwanzaa begins on December 26th and is 7 days long ending on January 1st. Traditionally a central place in the home is chosen and a table is set up and covered with an African cloth known as the mkeka (mat) and all the other symbols are placed on the mkeka. We start with the Kinara (candle holder), then the seven candles known as the Mishumaa Saba are placed into the kinara. The seven candles include one black candle representing unity of the people and is called Umoja and is placed in the center of the kinara. To three red candles are placed to the left of the black candle and they represent Kujichajulia (self-determination), Ujamaa (cooperative economics) and Kuumba (creativity). Then to the right of the Umoja are three green candles representing Ujima (collective work and responsibility), NIa (purpose) and Imani (faith). The black candle is lit first on the first day of the celebration. And the remaining candles are lit afterwards from left to right on the following days. This procedure is to indicate that the people come first, then the struggle and then the hope that comes from the struggle.
And then the mazao (crops), and ears of corn are also placed on the mkeka. At least two ears of corn are placed down on the mat regardless of whether there are children in the immediate family or not for the children of the community belong to all of us and every adult in African tradition is considered an immediate or social parent. Next the kikombe cha umoja (the Unity cup) is then placed on the mkeka (mat). It is used to pour tambiko (libation) to the ancestors in remembrance and honor of those who paved the path down which we walk and who taught us the good, the Tamshi and the beautiful in life. Then African art objects and books on the life and culture of African people are also placed on or next to the mat to symbolize our commitment to heritage and learning.kwanzaa-pic2

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By Brett Dassen, Michelle Frese, and Jocelyn Land; photos by Brett Dassen

There is a popular new trend in Las Vegas, the “food truck”. These mobile cafes move

constantly around the Valley, “broadcasting” their location and parking wherever they can

find enough space. Food trucks frequently draw many huge crowds in some popular

locations. Any weekday at noon, you can go to the courthouse and observe the food

trucks that park there for lunch. They inform people of their location by social networking

sites such as Facebook or MySpace. When  anew truck opens, especially at a new location,

they can be extremely popular. Many food trucks have regular stops at the same time at

the same place each day .

So Many Choices .

There were so many different kinds of food at

the monthly StrEats food truck festival held the second Saturday of every month at the

El Cortez. Some of the food was Hawaiian chicken sandwiches, varieties of pizza, Chinese

food, and cheese steak sandwiches. There were also trucks with ice cream, funnel cakes,

and specialty drinks. One of our favorite foods was the Hawaiian chicken sandwich.

They also had trucks that served Mexican food, meatball lamb sandwiches, hamburgers,

churros, and French fries. One truck, called Sausage Fest, served sausages and hot dogs.

We tried food samples of chicken curry and beef curry from one of the tables in front of

an Indian specialty truck. Sin City Wings had very good hot wings. Prices ranged from

approximately five to ten dollars per meal, depending on what you ordered. Some of the

gourmet items were a bit pricier, but still quite reasonable. There was very little seating, so

it’s helpful to keep that in mind when ordering your meal. Another option would be to bring

a blanket or folding chair if you want to eat outside. Interestingly, another new arrival in

the food truck trend is called the “bustaurant”, where the food is prepared downstairs on a

converted double-decker bus, and there is an area for eating upstairs. Many food trucks

accept credit and debit cards.

Taking in the Scene

An onomatopoeical adjective based on the sound emitted when something is “oh so tasty” that one gnaws through it without regard to cleanliness or etiguette. This sort ravenous eating will often result in a “nom nom” noise being emitted from the eater.


The festival was a lot of fun, though visitors should be prepared for some noise and a

little crowd commotion. Besides just eats, the event really stimulates all your senses.

The loud music playing added a festive airto  the event. The food tasted and smelled

wonderful! You could smell the food cooking from far away. What was most fun was

trying all the different kinds of food. We attended the festival in May, and the area was

well-populated on a beautiful Vegas night. We really enjoyed the visual aspect of the

diverse group of people in attendance as well as the brightly colored truck decor. There

was a mixture of people from all walks of life enjoying the food and the atmosphere,

everyone from young kids and teenagers to older adults. The artwork and logos on the

trucks were fun, creative and really made the trucks stand out. There was a lot of walking

involved, so if you plan to attend in the upcoming months, wear comfortable shoes!

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